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Alt 02.10.08, 11:36   Yukarı Git #1
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Arrow Fiber Optik Kablolar


Optik iletişimde ışık sinyallerini bir yerden başka bir yere yönelten araçlar optik fiberlerdir. Optik fiberler son derece saydam camdan veya plastikten yapılır. Genellikle çapları 0,125mm ve 0,5mm?dir.

Işığı optik fiberde yönlendirmek, ışığın farklı ortamlarda hareket etmesine benzer. Işık boşlukta 300000km/s hızla, daha yoğun bir maddeden geçerken daha yavaş hareket eder. Yavaşlama derecesi ışığın boşluktaki hızının bir madde içindeki hızına bölünmesiyle elde edilen kırılma oranı ile ölçülür. Bir cam fiberin kırılma indisi 1,5 tur. Bu da ışığı saniyede 200.000 km?lik bir hızla taşıyabileceği anl..... gelir. Fiber optikte ışık içten tam yansıma ile iletilir.

İlk cam fiberler 1887 yılında Charles Vernon Boys tarafından yapıldı. Ancak kaplamalı optik fiberler 1950?li yıllarda görüntü iletme amacıyla yapıldı.

Fiber optiklerin en geniş kullanım alanı telekomünikasyondur. Bir tek fiber görsel sinyali ileticiden alıcıya taşır. Sinyali, telefonlar, televizyonlar ve bilgisayar iletişimleri için tellerden daha uzağa ve daha hızlı bir biçimde yükseltmeye (amlifikasyona) gerek kalmaksızın iletir.

1970?li yılların sonlarında mühendisler ticari telefon ağları için fiber optik bileşenleri geliştirdiler. Günümüzde birçok şirket şebeke merkezleri arasındaki pek çok telefon sinyalini iletmek için fiber optik kullanmayı tercih ediyor.

Fiberin Kısımları

Her fiber üç kısma sahiptir: nüve, kaplama, kılıf.

Nüve: ışık sinyalini taşıyan kısımdır.

Kaplama: nüveden farklı bir kırılma indisine sahip olan ve nüveyi dıştan kaplayan cam tabakasıdır. Işığın nüve içinde içten tam yansıma yaparak ilerlemesini sağlar.

Kılıf: fiberi aşınma, baskı ve kimyasallardan koruyan poliüretan bir cekettir.

Fiberde İletim

Optik fiberlerin çoğu özel bir camdan son derece saf silikondiyoksitten yapılır. Kırılma oranını değiştirmek için çok az miktarda germanyum ya da bor gibi başka maddeler de katılır.

Fiber optik kabloların çapı ortalama 1,27cm?dir. Kabloda her biri 12 fiber içeren iki şerit vardır. Yani her kabloda 24 fiber vardır. Tek bir fiber 672 ses sinyali taşıyabilir. Tek bir kablo 24*672 ses sinyali taşıyabilir.

Optik haberleşmede kaynak olarak kullanılan ışık elektromanyetik radyasyonun görünmeyen kısımlarını kapsar. Bugün fiber optik haberleşme sistemlerinde kızılötesi ışınlar bölgesine düşen 0,85?m, 1,33?m, 1,55?m dalgaboylarında ışık kullanılır. Görünür ve morötesi ışıklar büyük kayıplar nedeniyle fiber optik sistemler için pratik değildir.

Optik iletişim sisteminde bir iletici, optik fiberin kanalize edeceği bir optik sinyali harekete geçirir. Fiber, sinyali gideceği yere iletir. Orada bir alıcı, optik girdiyi, sisteme bağlı olan aletin gerektirdiği elektrik formata çevirir. Optik sinyali harekete geçirmek için ileticinin elektrik sinyallerini ışığa çevirmesi gerekir. Elektriksel sinyal ileticinin içindeki devreleri denetler, iletici de yarı iletken lazer gibi, ışık yayan yarı iletken cihazlardan geçen akımı denetler. Bu araçtan geçen akımın miktarı, üretilecek ışığın miktarını denetler.

Işık iletişim sistemlerinde sinyali iletmek için çeşitli yollar kullanılabilir. En basiti analog sistemleridir. Burada gelen sinyalin genliği direk ışığın şiddeti olarak fiber optiğe iletilir. Fotodedektör (kaydedici) sayesinde değişken ışık şiddeti elektrik sinyallerine karşılık getirilir ve bu sinyaller orijinal dalga şeklini meydana getirecek şekilde yükseltilir. İletim esnasında sinyallerin dayanıklılığı mesafeyle orantılı olarak azalacaktır, sinyaller bozulacaktır. Bu nedenle dijital kod sistemi kullanılır. Giriş dalgasının frekansı veya genliği düzenli aralıklar kullanılarak elektronik olarak örneklenebilir. Hassas bir gösterim elde etmek için dalgalar kendi en yüksek frekans bileşenlerinin iki katı oranında örneklenmelidir. Örneğin frekansı 4000Hz olan bir ses sinyalinin frekansı 8000Hz olmalıdır. Tek bir örnek yüksekliği ikili sistemde 1 veya 0 olarak kodlanır. 1 puls olarak, 0 pulsun yokluğu olarak görülür. Tipik bir ses her örnek noktasındaki dalga şeklinin yüksekliği 0 ile 255 arasındaki değerle gösterilir. Bunun için 8 tane dijitale ihtiyaç vardır. (2^8=256?dır.) 1 sn süren ses dalgası için sistemde 64000 bite ihtiyaç vardır. Dijital modülasyonda kullanılan cihaz, analog modülasyonda kullanılandan çok daha karmaşıktır.

Çeşitli fiber optik kablolar:

Fiber Optiğin Özellikleri

Bilgi taşıyıcısı olarak ışığın kullanıldığı iletişim sistemleri son zamanlarda oldukça ilgi görmektedir. Örneğin evlerimize elektrik ileten kalın tellerin direnci düşük olmasına rağmen saniyede 50Hz?den daha hızlı bilgi taşıyamazlar. Optik fiberlerde ise bu rakam 200000Hz civarına kadar çıkabilir. Optik fiberler fazla güç harcamadan büyük miktarda bilgi taşıyabilir. Düşük kayıplı iletim ortamı sağlaması nedeniyle özellikle ses iletiminde önemli bir uygulama alanı bulmuştur.

Avantajları:

?Elektriksel iletkenlikleri yoktur.

?Elektromanyetik darbelerden ve nükleer silahlardan etkilenmezler.

?Radyoaktif ışınımlara karşı dayanıklıdır.

?Fiziksel boyutları küçük ve hafiftirler.

?Bir tek lif içinden dört ayrı dalgaboyunda iletişim yapılarak kanal kapasitesi dört kat arttırılabilir.

?Yerel ağ şebekelerinde tek bir fiber üzerinden aynı anda TV, telefon, internet? hizmetleri iletilebilir.

?Kaçak olarak girilemez.

?Dışarıdan dinlenmesi imkânsız olduğundan özellikle askeri amaçlı iletişimin vazgeçilmez aracıdır.

?Tekrarlayıcılar arası mesafe yüksektir.

?Topraklama problemi yoktur, yıldırımdan etkilenmez.

?Dış şartlara karşı dayanıklıdır. (radyasyon, yağmur, aşırı sıcaklık..)

?Sağlam izolasyona sahiptir.

?Kanal başına maliyeti düşüktür.

?900 çift bakır tel yerine 6 çift fiber optik kablo yeterlidir.

?Ham maddesi sınırsızdır. (toprak)

Dezavantajları:

?Uç uca eklemek kolay değildir.

?Ek bakım titizliği ister.

?Henüz yerel dağıtım şebekelerinde cazip değildir.

?Henüz standartlaşma yoktur.

?Ekonomik yönden düşününce fiber optik iletişimi daha pahalıdır.

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Alt 25.11.08, 14:16   Yukarı Git #2
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