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Alt 11.01.08, 16:43   Yukarı Git #1
karamelek
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Standart Kuvvetler


Kuvvetler

Cisimlerin hareket durumlarını veya şekillerini değiştirebilen etkiye kuvvet denir. Etki ettiği cismin şeklini değiştirmesi ve esnek cisimlerin uzayıp sıkışması gibi olaylar, kuvvetin statik etkisinin sonucudur.
Duran cismi hareket ettirmesi, hareket halindeki cismin hızında değişiklik yapması, kuvvetin dinamik etkisinin sonucudur.
Kuvvet vektörel bir büyüklük olduğundan, vektörlerin bütün özellikleri kuvvetler için de geçerlidir. SI birim sisteminde kuvvet birimi newton (N) dur.
Dinamometre
Kuvvet dinamometre ile ölçülür. Esnek yaydaki uzama miktarı, dinamometreye asılan cismin ağırlık kuvveti ile doğru orantılıdır. Dolayısıyla yaydaki uzama, kuvvetin büyüklüğünün bir ölçüsü olarak alınabilir. Örneğin 10 N ağırlıklı cisim asıldığında yay 1 mm uzuyorsa, 50 N ağırlıklı cisim asıldığında yay 5 mm uzayacaktır.

Ağırlık bir kuvvet olduğundan, kütlesi m olan bir cismin ağırlığı

G = mg dir. Buradaki g yerçekim ivmesi olup ölçümün yapıldığı yere göre değişebilmektedir.

Bileşke Kuvvet

Ä°ki ya da daha fazla kuvvetin yaptığı etkiyi tek başına yapan kuvvete bileşke kuvvet denir. Kuvvetlerin herbirine ise bileşke kuvvetin bileşenleri denir. Bileşke kuvvet R sembolü ile gösterilir.

a) Aynı Doğrultudaki Kuvvetlerin Bileşkesi

Aynı noktaya uygulanan ve aynı yönlü olan kuvvetlerin bileşkesinin büyüklüğü, kuvvetlerin cebirsel topl***** eşittir.

R = F1 + F2 dir.

Bu durumda kuvvetler arasındaki açı a = 0° olduğundan bileşke kuvvetin şiddeti maksimum değerde olur.

Aynı noktaya uygulanan kuvvetler zıt yönlü iseler bileşke kuvvetin şiddeti, vektörlerin şiddetinin yine cebirsel farkına eşit olur.


R = F1 ? F2 dir.


Kuvvetler zıt yönlü iken aralarındaki açı a = 180° olduğundan bileşke kuvvetin şiddeti minimum değerde olur.

Ä°ki kuvvetin bileşkesinin büyüklüğü, kuvvetlerin cebirsel toplamından büyük ,farkından küçük olamaz Kuvvetler arasındaki açı büyüdükçe bileşke kuvvetin şiddeti azalır

b) Kesişen Kuvvetlerin Bileşkesi


Vektörlerin toplanmasında ve çıkarılmasında anlatılan tüm özellikler kuvvetler için de aynen geçerlidir. Şekildeki F1 ve F2 kuvvetlerinin bileşkesi yani vektörel toplamı, uç uca ekleme ya da paralelkenar metoduyla bulunur.


Kuvvetlerin şiddetleri F1 ve F2, aralarındaki açı a ise, bileşke kuvvetin şiddeti bulunur.

ÖSS sınavında gelen sorularda bu bağıntı kullanılarak soru gelmektedir.Ancak bu bağıntı çıkarılan özel durumlarla ilgili sorular gelmektedir.


1. Kuvvetler eşit büyüklükte ve aralarındaki açı

a = 60° ise, bileşke kuvvetin şiddeti

2. Eşit büyüklükteki kuvvetler arasındaki açı,


a = 120° ise bileşke kuvvetin şiddeti kuvvetlerden bir tanesinin şiddetine eşittir.

3. F1 ve F2 kuvvetleri arasındaki açı 90° ise, bileşke kuvvetin şiddeti pisagor bağıntısından bulunur.

Duran cisimler, üzerine etkileyen kuvvetlerin bileşkesi yönünde harekete geçer.

Kuvvetlerin Dengesi

Cismin bir noktasına aynı doğrultulu eşit şiddette ve zıt yönde iki kuvvet uygulandığında, bu kuvvetler birbirini dengeler. Yani bu kuvvetlerin bileşkesi sıfır olur.

Buna göre, bir cisme uygulanan bütün kuvvetlerin bileşkesi sıfır ise cisim dengededir. Cismin dengede olması demek ya durması, ya da sabit hızla gitmesi demektir.

Şekildeki cisme F1 ve F2 kuvvetleri uygulandığında cismin dengede kalabilmesi için, bileşke kuvvetin uygulandığı noktaya bileşke kuvvete eşit şiddette ve zıt yönlü bir kuvvet uygulanmalıdır. Bu kuvvete dengeleyici kuvvet denir.

Bir cismin dengede kalabilmesi için uygulanan kuvvetlerin bileşkesi sıfır olmalıdır. SF = 0 olmalıdır. Ayrıca kuvvetler x ve y eksenlerine bileşenler ayrılarak taşınırsa, x ve y eksenlerindeki kuvvetlerin bileşkesi ayrı ayrı sıfır olmalıdır. SFx = 0, SFy = 0 olmalıdır.


Lami Teoremi

Kesişen üç kuvvet dengede ise,kuvvetlerin, karşılarındaki açıların sinüslerine oranı sabittir.

Etki ? Tepki Prensibi




Her etkiye karşı eşit ve zıt yönlü bir tepki uygulanır. Etki kuvvetinin büyüklüğü ile tepki kuvvetinin büyüklüğü eşit fakat zıt yönlüdür. Şekildeki cisim, zemine ağırlığı kadar bir etki uygularsa, zeminde cisme o büyüklükte bir tepki kuvveti uygular.


Fetki = ? Ftepki G = ? N dir.


Şekildeki ip iki ucundan eşit büyüklükteki F kuvvetleri ile çekilirse, ipteki gerilme kuvveti yine F olur. Ayrıca ipin bütün noktalarındaki gerilme kuvveti aynı değerdedir.

Maddelerin Esnekliği

Maddeler üzerine bir kuvvet uygulanırsa şekillerinde az veya çok bazı değişmeler olur. Esnek bir yay iki ucundan çekilirse uzar, iki ucundan sıkıştırılırsa kısalır. Sünger gibi esnek cisimlerin şeklinde daha fazla değişme olur. Çelik çubuğun bir ucu sabitlenip diğer ucundan bir kuvvet uygulanırsa çubuk eğilir, kuvvet kaldırılırsa, eski halini alır. Cisimlerin şekillerini değiştirici kuvvet ortadan kaldırıldığında tekrar eski halini alan maddelere esnek maddeler denir.

Teldeki uzama miktarı,
a) Telin boyu ile doğru orantılıdır.

b) Telin kesit alanı ile ters orantılıdır.

c) Telin ucuna uygulanan kuvvet ile doğru orantılıdır.

d) Uzama miktarı ayrıca telin cinsine de bağlıdır.

Örneğin, ilk boyu ve kesit alanı aynı olan çelik ve bakır tele aynı büyüklükte kuvvet uygulanırsa, bakır tel çelik tele göre daha fazla uzar.

Esnek bir yayın ucuna G ağırlıklı bir cisim asılırsa yay uzar. Daha ağır bir cisim asıldığında ise yay daha fazla uzar. Yani yaydaki uzama miktarı yayı geren kuvvet ile doğru orantılıdır.

F = ? k . x olur. Burada

x : yaydaki uzama veya sıkışma miktarı

k : Yay sabiti olup yayın cinsine ve uzunluğuna bağlıdır.

Formülün önündeki (?) işareti F vektörü ile x vektörünün zıt yönlü olduğunu gösterir. Büyüklük hesabı yapıldığında (?) işareti dikkate alınmaz.

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Konu Konuyu Başlatan Forum Cevaplar Son Mesaj
Paralel Kuvvetler karamelek Fizik Ders Notları 0 11.01.08 16:47
Yeryüzünü Biçimlendiren Kuvvetler karamelek Coğrafya (Soru-Cevap-Konu Anlatım) 0 31.12.07 19:22



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